Problems With Abiogenesis

Addressing Abiogenesis & Common Misconceptions


I am going to just allow science to critique science

James Tour (35)

Key Highlights

  1. DNA is made by proteins and RNA, but proteins are made by DNA and RNA. This is the chicken and egg question.
  2. DNA contains coded information in the four nucleotide bases, A, T, C, and G. Information is always (habitually) linked to a mind.
  3. In the evolutionary model there are no known assembly instructions for the making a living cell, no one has an idea where the assembly instructions came from.
  4. The probability of a living cell to be created by nature is 10 to the 164th power, that's 10 followed by 164 zeros. and the number of elementary particles in the universe is 10 to the 90th power.
  5. There are over 40 cellular nano machines which are irreducibly complex, meaning each nano machine must be made as a whole and not part by part. No one can explain how all these machines were created at the same time.
  6. Life could not have formed in Darwin's "warm little pond" because heat and water are the enemies of protein creation.
  7. Chemicals cannot produce information, as in 3.2 billion bits of information in DNA.
  8. No known mechanism for creation of the 20 organelles in the cell, and all at the same time in order that a single cell could function.
  9. Irreducible complexity describes how a living cell, with its many parts and molecules, must be created all at one time, or it will not function on its own.
  10. Blood clotting is an irreducible complex system due the fact that 13 components must all be present, or a person will bleed to death and the mechanism to stop clotting appropriately.
  11. The mechanism behind polymerization, the bonding of hundreds and in some cases thousands of molecules cannot be explained naturally. There are 10 to the 79th billion ways yeast proteins can interact but only a few are functional.

The concept of abiogenesis, the idea that life can arise spontaneously from non-living matter, has long been a topic of fascination and debate. While it is important to explore all scientific theories, it is equally crucial to critically examine the evidence supporting them. In this article, we will explore some key arguments against abiogenesis, shedding light on the challenges it faces as a theory for the origin of life on Earth.

Abiogenesis is the materialist approach to first life but does not consider the possibility of metaphysical and logical claims to the Origin of First Life.

1. The Complexity of Life:
One of the fundamental hurdles abiogenesis faces is the sheer complexity of life. The simplest living cells are incredibly intricate, with intricate molecular machinery and complex information storage systems. The odds of such complexity spontaneously arising from non-living matter are statistically implausible. It is difficult to imagine how the intricate mechanisms of life, such as DNA replication and protein synthesis, could have emerged in a purely random and unguided manner.

2. Lack of Experimental Evidence:
Despite decades of research, scientists have not been able to replicate abiogenesis in a laboratory setting. Numerous experiments attempting to recreate the conditions of early Earth have yielded limited success at best. The Miller-Urey experiment, often cited as evidence for abiogenesis, produced a few simple organic molecules in a controlled environment, but it did not demonstrate the formation of life itself. The absence of compelling experimental evidence weakens the case for abiogenesis as a plausible explanation for the origin of life.

3. Information and the Genetic Code:
A fundamental aspect of life is the existence of a genetic code that determines the traits and characteristics of an organism. The origin of this intricate genetic code remains a significant challenge for abiogenesis. Information-rich systems, such as DNA, do not spontaneously arise from non-living matter. The complex sequence of nucleotides required for a functional genetic code is highly unlikely to have emerged by chance alone. The information content present in even the simplest living organisms points towards the need for an intelligent source.

4. The Problem of Irreducible Complexity:
Irreducible complexity, a concept coined by biochemist Michael Behe (2), poses a significant challenge to abiogenesis. Many cellular structures and molecular machines are composed of multiple interacting parts that must all be present and functional for the system to work. The gradual and step-by-step process proposed by abiogenesis fails to explain the origin of such irreducibly complex systems. It is difficult to envision how these intricate structures could have evolved through random mutations and natural selection alone.

Evolution is data poor and imagination rich.

While the concept of abiogenesis has intrigued scientists for decades, it faces several significant challenges when it comes to explaining the origin of life on Earth. The complexity of life, the lack of experimental evidence, the existence of information-rich genetic codes, and the problem of irreducible complexity all cast doubt on the plausibility of abiogenesis as a scientific theory. As our understanding of the complexities of life continues to grow, it is crucial to critically evaluate and explore alternative theories that may provide a more comprehensive explanation for the origin of life.

​The problems are so serious that the majority of evolutionists today tend to shun the whole subject of abiogenesis. (6)

​DNA makes proteins and RNA but proteins make DNA and RNA, and proteins make enzymes, but enzymes make proteins. What is the answer to this mystery? We can't brush this problem aside, we must answer to determine the origin of first life. At the present time science cannot answer this question. ​The improbability of forming one functional protein of 150 amino acids is 10 to the 164th power. The number of elemental particles in the universe is 10 to the 90th power.

My study of historical scientific reasoning and origin-of-life research suggested to me that it was possible to formulate a rigorous scientific case for intelligent design as an inference to the best explanation, specifically, as a best explanation for the origin of biological information ... Further, the functionally specified information in the cell also points to intelligent design as the best explanation for the ultimate origin of biological information. Why? Experience shows that large amounts of such information (especially codes and languages) invariably originate from an intelligent source—from a mind or a personal agent ... it occurred to me that by Lyell’s and Darwin’s own rule of reasoning and test of a sound scientific explanation, intelligent design must qualify as the currently best scientific explanation for the origin of biological information. (Stephen Meyer 25)

During the last fifty years, every naturalistic model proposed has failed to explain the origin of the functionally specified genetic information required to build a living cell (Meyer 2009).

​​Top Reasons Abiogenesis is False
1.     No assembly instructions for creating the first living cell​
2.     Time and heat is an enemy of amino acids and proteins
3.    No evidence via experimentation and/or observation
4.     No coded instructions for creating a living cell
5.    Thermodynamics is a problem in that available energy would have been decreasing
6.    Abiogenesis is assumed to be unrepeatable
7.    Proteins and RNA make DNA and DNA and RNA makes proteins, which came fist?
8.    No real proposed scenario as to which chemicals or gases interacted first
9.    There is not enough time for abiogenesis to occur
10. Normal chemical reactions would prevent formation of proteins in water
11. No explanation of how cell organelles were created
12. No explanation of where cell energy, i.e., carbohydrates, came from
13. No real explanation of how cell membranes with their proteins were formed
14. Polymerization problem in getting amino acids strung together to form a protein.
15. Theory of RNA first before DNA but no earthly explanation of where RNA materials came from, unless from asteroids.
16. Complex biomolecules are quickly destroyed outside the cell
17. Primitive lipids did not form cell membranes into spheres
18. Cells could not form cell organelles one by one, over long periods of time.
19. No explanation on how amino acids formed.
20. No evidence for a Darwin's "primordial soup".
21. Chance is not a cause
22. No explanation of where the four basic cell components came from
23. Irreducible complexity
24. Nature does not keep a lab notebook.
25. Nano machines in the cell
26. Mis-calculating earths early atmosphere

God of the Gaps? or is it Abiogenesis of the Gaps?

God of the gaps is the belief attributed to those who find gaps in their philosophy of life and then claim God was who can fill the hole in their gap. Abiogenies of the gaps is the idea that since scientists cannot find a reason for a gap in their theories of origin of life, abiogenesis must have done it. 

​Years ago, the Origin-of-Life Science Foundation (Evolution 2.0) offered a $1 million prize (now $10 million) to anyone providing a chemically plausible naturalistic solution for the origin of the genetic code and life. Over the years since The Origin of Life Prize was first announced in NATURE and SCIENCE, no submission has ever made it past the screening judges to higher-level judges. Most of these Prize-offer questions centered on: “How did inanimate, prebiotic nature prescribe or program the first genome?” (Origin of Life Prize)

​No one knows how the first cell came about. But there’s a simpler, more fundamental question: Where did the information come from? An answer will trigger a quantum leap in Artificial Intelligence. This may be as big as the transistor or the discovery of DNA itself. A new $10 million prize seeks a definitive answer.

"Evolution 2.0 is a sign of a shifting emphasis in biology from regarding life primarily as a chemical system, to looking at the flow of information." (Financial Times Science Editor Clive Cookson 7)

What if we had the four components of a cell in pure form?

Even when given carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids and nucleic acids scientists cannot create, “build” a cell. Why? No assembly instructions. No DNA with 3.2 billion bits of information in the correct order.

At this point, it is necessary to reveal a little inside information about how scientists work, something the textbooks don’t usually tell you. The fact is that scientists are not really as objective and dispassionate in their work as they would like you to think. Most scientists first get their ideas about how the world works not through rigorously logical processes but through hunches and wild guesses. As individuals they often come to believe something to be true long before they assemble the hard evidence that will convince somebody else that it is. Motivated by faith in his own ideas and a desire for acceptance by his peers, a scientist will labor for years knowing in his heart that his theory is correct but devising experiment after experiment whose results he hopes will support his position (1986, pp. 17-18, emp. added). Boyce Rensberger (29)​

Particles to people is totally unscientific

1. No assembly instructions for creating the first living cell
Assembly instructions. In order to build a cell, the following must be incorporated: material, information, assembly instructions, and the order within the assembly instructions. Dr. Tour has challenged others to make a cell even if he gives them the carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and amino acids in the right quantities. They cannot do it. It is not possible without the assembly instructions. The DNA code. Now comes the chicken and egg question. Proteins and RNA make DNA and DNA and RNA and proteins makes proteins. So, which came first?

​Information is the key to origin of first life. “To explain how life began we need to understand how its unique management of information came about...The way life manages information involves a logical structure that differs fundamentally from mere complex chemistry. Therefore chemistry alone will not explain life’s origin, any more than a study of silicon, copper and plastic will explain how a computer can execute a program.” Paul Davies (13)

​The real question is not the hardware but the software. It is not the chemicals and molecules, or the code, but how is the code translated? Over 100 macromolecular components are needed for code translation. The origin of the information is key. Where did it come from?

“The likelihood of the formation of life from inanimate matter is one to a number with 40,000 naughts after it … It is big enough to bury Darwin and the whole theory of evolution. There was no primeval soup, neither on this planet nor any other, and if the beginnings of life were not random, they must therefore have been the product of purposeful intelligence.Fred Hoyle (21)

The total number of events (or ‘elementary logical operations’) that could have occurred in the universe since the supposed big bang (13.7 billion years) has been calculated at no more than 10 to the 120th power by MIT researcher Seth Lloyd (23)

​The major links in the molecules-to-man theory that must be bridged include:

  1. Evolution of simple inorganic molecules into complex molecules,
  2. Evolution of simple organic molecules into complex organic molecules,
  3. Eventual Evolution of complex organic molecules into DNA or similar information storage molecules, and
  4. Eventually Evolution into the first cells. Why Is abiogenesis impossible? - ChristianAnswers.Net (6)

​There is a precise order when building a molecule or an organism, think about the icing on a cake. The frosting is not mixed up with the flour and other ingredients. It is a separate step. The two cannot be combined. I discovered this concept years ago when making chocolate chip cookies. I read the list of ingredients, put them all in a bowl and mixed them. The cookies did not turn out how I expected them to. I failed to read the instructions. The "assembly code".

​​In the biological process of making a cell that you have to have order in the assembly process, first A, then B, then C, etc. Do not forget that time, light, heat and water are the enemy of these macromolecules. In the lab sometimes reactions are stopped in order to get the desired effects and not something else.

It now is acknowledged that the first living organism could not have arisen directly from inorganic matter (water, carbon dioxide, and other inorganic nutrients) even as a result of some extraordinary event... Nor have researchers been able to develop a plausible theory to explain how life could evolve from non-lifeWhy Is abiogenesis impossible? - ChristianAnswers.Net (6)

​Step by step, how does an atom bond with another atom, then combine with a different atom to make a macromolecule, then to an organelle and then to a cell? No body knows. Why weren't back then, and now, molecules bonding all over the place? When forming macromolecules, it does not know what the end process is and should keep on evolving. But we do not see this in recent history. Nature does not know what it is building and when it makes a mistake it cannot go back millions of years to correct the mistake. There may not even be the original starting material.

The more we know about the cell, the more difficult it is to imagine that such an intricate thing could have just evolved by sheer random process over time without any directive force. (

​​Watson and Crick’s antitheistic argument is particularly inept, as we can easily see by considering a car. We have no dispute that it works by the laws of physics and chemistry without any miniature intelligent beings controlling the various parts. But this would not show that the laws of physics and chemistry created the car in the first place! Rather, we know that an intelligent designer organized the components in the right way, so they would run by these laws. Imagine the very numerous parts of a car, unassembled. With assembly instructions it would still be difficult to assemble the car. With out instructions it is probably impossible.

​​The probability of abiogenesis actually occurring is closer to theology than science,

Herbert Yockey (38)

​​Dr Lee Cornin (11) said in 2011 that within two years he could make a cell, with the right equipment. To this day this has not happened. We cannot build a simple bacterial cell with 256 genes. When the news says a scientist made a living cell we are not told about 'cheating' by starting with a cell and making modifications to it.

Bill Gates (18) said DNA is like computer code but much more complex. The most complex “machine” in the universe is the human cell with hundreds of thousands of parts and nano-protein machines serving numerous functions.​

"But of all the reading I've done in the life science ligature I've never found a mutation that added information"

Dr. Lee Spetner​​ (31)

"Evolution could not have happened by chance but I am unwilling to invoke a god."

Miklos Bodanszky, peptide chemist (3)

​Information, as in a software program, it useless unless it can be read. The decoding machinery is itself encoded on the DNA which is another impossibility of origin of life scenarios and abiogenesis. Without an already functional repair system, early cells would contain a significant number of copying errors and therefore mutations. Degrading mutations which do not add new information to the cell.

The idea that the instructions to build repair machinery are encoded on the very molecule it repairs is fascinating. It is true that this creates a vicious circle for origin of life scenarios. However, it is important to note that the exact mechanisms of DNA repair are still being studied and understood. The repair machinery is a complex system that involves multiple proteins and enzymes, each with its own specific function. The instructions for building these proteins are encoded in the DNA itself, but the process of transcription and translation is required to produce them.

​The bacteria Deinococcus radiodurans can withstand high temperatures in sea vents, which can degrade DNA, but it has 60 genes that repair the breaks in DNA within hours of the being damaged DNA. We know watery environments act as degrading agents which prevent protein reactions and does not allow for a protein polymer from forming. Abiogenesis advocates believe that early cells were less complex and then gradually over long periods of time increase in complexity. But again, there is the problem that time is an enemy of abiogenesis. There is no mechanism that allows for creating the DNA sequence for a protein from the protein itself. Hubert Yockey (38)

Molecular self-replication or self-assembly cannot occur, except in living cells.

Richard Dawkins (14) said in The Blind Watchmaker; “Biology is the study of complicated things that give the appearance of having been designed for a purpose.” How did these complicated things decide to appear as if someone designed them? Sounds like they intellectually designed themselves. Dawkins refuses to allow observation to interfere with his conclusions. Facts are stubborn things.

​Scientists do not use positive words when attempting an explanation of first life. One YouTuber used these words in describing abiogenesis:

  • May
  • Perhaps
  • May have 
  • Could have
  • Possibly
  • Enzymes arriving

​These words do not sound very scientific.

2. Time and heat are an enemy of amino acids and proteins

More time means more potential mutations and most mutations degrade the evolutionary process. Heat will not allow for correct polymerization. Give time and chance more time. If cell organelles could form one by one, over long periods of time, some would be mutated out. remember the analogy about building a car, make a chassis then over millions of years wait for a tire or carburetor.​

3. No real evidence via experimentation or observation
Has experimentation and observation proven abiogenesis? No. Has experimentation and observation proven evolution? No. Without abiogenesis there is no starting point for atheistic evolution. The reality is that since macroevolution cannot harmonize with true theism that theory is left alongside abiogenesis as a fundamental plank of atheism. The two are intimately linked and stand or fall together. (Jeff Miller 26)

I don't have enough faith to be an evolutionist.

​In the commonly used middle school/junior high textbook, Life Science, the text’s authors do not even mention the word “biogenesis,” much less, “The Law of Biogenesis.” Instead, under the heading, “Life Comes From Life,” the authors explain the work of Redi and Pasteur. (Jeff Miller 26)

"Living things arise from living things through reproduction…. The mistaken idea that living things can arise from nonliving sources is called spontaneous generation. It took hundreds of years of experiments to convince people that spontaneous generation does not occur" (Coolidge-Stolz 8).

​Why are scientists so unscientific in their view of abiogenesis, the origin of life? This is the view, by their own admission, is “impossible”? In what direction does science actually point? All scientists look at the same data but draw different conclusions. This is because of their "world view". Remember, "science doesn't say anything, scientists do".

No one has proven that a simple self-copying molecule can self-generate a compound such as DNA. Nor has anyone been able to create one in a laboratory or even on paper. The hypothetical weak “primeval soup” was not like soups experienced by humans but was highly diluted, likely close to pure water. Why Is abiogenesis impossible? - ChristianAnswers.Net (6)

4.    No coded instructions for creating a living cell

Abiogenesis does not provide any answers as to where the 3.2 billion bits of DNA information come from. Information only comes from a mind and DNA is like a digital code made from a mind. Because no one knows where the code came from some scientists believe in panspermia, that aliens deposited life on earth, or that life was on a meteor that landed on earth.,

5.    Thermodynamics is a problem due to loss of energy during synthesis of a cell

Life is susceptible to a loss of energy and gain in of entropy, or disorder, when molecules organize themselves into living matter.  Nature goes from low entropy to high entropy and from high energy to low energy.

6.    Abiogenesis is unrepeatable

If the probability of creating one small protein is 10 to the 164th power, then the probability of it not occurring is crazy high.  

7. Proteins make DNA and RNA and DNA and RNA makes proteins
Enzymes make protein and protein makes DNA and RNA. The synthesis of DNA requires ribose. The creation of ribose molecule requires 11 different enzymes and four of them are only involved in the process of forming a molecule of sugar. Also, 4 activators are involved. It requires 15 "agents" to synthesize a glucose molecule. The DNA polymerase will determine the correct order of gases and correct any error. Without the chaperone molecule, the DNA would not function. Just as a computer game or computer software that is missing code will not function correctly. 

The proofreading enzyme is more complex than the code it is reading/replacing.

​​Francis Crick (10), the co-discover of DNA, said; “biologists must constantly keep in mind that what they see was not designed, but rather evolved.” How does he know they were not designed? A person would have to have unlimited knowledge to state this.

​With the discovery of the DNA molecule by Watson and Crick in 1953 the unimaginable complexity in the cell was revealed.  Even more amazing than that is when the DNA molecule is replicated.  The DNA molecule is separated into complementary sides by a large complex protein, then the copies are transported by messenger RNA to the mitochondria where they are recombined to form DNA. To make this process more complex, there is a left and right-handed version, but only left-handed amino acids are useable.

Some scientists believe that DNA and RNA started together but no one has been able to present a scenario in which nature could do so. To make this process even more complicated, is that the chemicals do not control the arrangement of the chemicals, something outside the chemicals determines its order.

If DNA and RNA were created at the same time, and that is a big if, there is still the problem of self-replication. How could/did it occur? In reality, self-replication would be at the end of the process of created DNA and RNA all of the cellular molecules.

A new organism "would require multiple machines and interrelated systems to access, interpret, and utilize the information, which would further require a suite of hundreds of genes, components, and systems to survive in a prebiotic environment and self-replicate. None of these steps is plausible by purely natural means. All of them speak to the need for intelligent input.”

“Turning from the first life to a wonder of contemporary technology, consider a self-driving car. A marvel of engineering, a self-driving car has copious systems and sub-systems and components, made of numerous materials, organized in just the right way, and humming along under the control of sophisticated software dancing through carefully designed circuit boards and integrated circuit chips made from silicon. Yet, based on the engineering analysis I lay out in our book, we know that a self-replicating system requires much more than even all this.” Eric H. Anderson (5)

​Another problem is how amino acids could have assembled into polymers, actual biological macromolecules. While Miller had a personal view of what the early earth atmosphere consisted of, we now know it was richer in oxygen. The challenge is that polymers are put together with enzymes which themselves are protein polymers. This is like the old chicken-and-egg problem, which came first the protein polymer or the enzyme?

​During early Earth, ocean water carrying amino acids could have splashed onto a hot surface like a lava flow, boiling away the water and leaving behind a protein. But where did the amino acids come from? Lurquin, P. F. (24). Proteins and metabolism first: The iron-sulfur world. In The origins of life and the universe (pp. 110-111). If the water contained the protein and if the water boiled away leaving only a protein, in both instances, it is still a protein.

Some scientists believe RNA preceded DNA because RNA in addition to carrying information, acts as a catalyst. In contrast, DNA molecules do not enter into catalyst actions. The information is primary and the matter secondary. Along with this are the thoughts that genes were created first or that metabolism was first. These ideas are unproven and are highly speculative.

If DNA and RNA existed in the early stages of abiogenesis, there would need to be a mechanism for the flow of information. Such a system has not been observed in nature.

  • What is the functional context of that system?
  • Where does the information come from?
  • How is it retrieved?
  • How is it interpreted and acted upon?
  • What is the overall meaning and purpose of that information?
  • How does it become directed toward a comprehensive, integrated, cohesive end — producing a living organism?

Protein folding is the process by which a newly synthesized or denatured protein molecule assumes its functional three-dimensional structure. This process is crucial for proteins to carry out their specific biological functions.

Proteins are made up of long chains of amino acids, and their unique properties and functions are determined by their precise three-dimensional shape. Protein folding occurs spontaneously in cells, guided by the interactions between different amino acids and the surrounding environment.

​Protein misfolding is a problem that can cause diseases including dementia, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, Type II diabetes, and cystic fibrosis. Misfolding is corrected by chaperones which correct the misfold. How did millions of years of (supposedly) 3D folding protein errors allow for the survival of the cell? How were proteins folded in the first place? Cells contain at least two types of enzymes that catalyze protein folding by breaking and re-forming covalent bonds. All this is more of the chicken-and-egg problem. No body knows how this was done naturally.

There is an article in the website PHYSORG about new evidence that scientists have learned how to manipulate the protein folding process. In the article, Researchers crack the cellular code on protein folding, offering hope for many new therapeutic avenues (by University of Massachusetts Amherst). In the article they talk about how carbohydrates are a part of the process of folding and how important they are:

  • The research, published in the journal Molecular Cell, explores members of a family of proteins called serpins, which are implicated in a number of diseases. The research is the first to investigate how the location and composition of carbohydrates attached to the serpins ensure that they fold correctly.
  • Serious diseases—ranging from emphysema and cystic fibrosis to Alzheimer's disease—can result when the cellular oversight of protein folding goes awry. Identifying the glyco-code responsible for high-fidelity folding and quality control could be a promising way for drug therapies to target many diseases.

It is yet to be seen if and when this new discovery can actually cure/prevent disease. This is far from the origin of first life.

8.    No real proposed scenario as to which chemicals or gases interacted first

Was the first interaction, bonding of two atoms, carbon and nitrogen, or carbon and hydrogen, or hydrogen and oxygen, etc. or maybe carbon, hydrogen and oxygen to form a sugar?

9.    There is not enough time for abiogenesis to occur
Give time more time (35:45-40:10)Those who believe in abiogenesis believe it takes hundreds of millions of years to arrive at life. But more time is not a friend of abiogenesis, the opposite is true. More time is the enemy of abiogenesis. For example, when a protein is made from amino acids, if that protein is not used for another interaction, it will degrade in 13 days. Some molecules last only 4 hours. The sugar ribose (C5H10O5) has a life span of 6 hours before it degrades. A single strand of RNA has only 4 hours to act with another substrate before it degrades. For abiogenesis to occur it would need to be done quickly.

​​Darwinists believe given enough time; evolutionary changes occurred. George Ward, (36) a Darwinist said, “Time is in fact the hero of the plot … given so much time the impossible becomes the possible, the possible becomes the probable and the probable becomes an almost probable virtually certain.” It’s a sure thing, with enough time. If we “shake, rattle and roll” various elements with enough time, complex carbon-based life is possible?

​Naturalism requires extremely long periods of time to form molecules, organelles, and cells. But time is not a friend of origin of life due to the degradation of molecules and organelles.

​​How did cells know they needed Adenosine TriPhosphate (ATP) for energy and how did a cell make it, and how did it make mitochondria to make the ATP?

​Darwin recognized that abiogenesis was a problem for his theory and thought that all of life came from one organism made by a Creator (Darwin, Charles, (12).

​​For the purposes of today’s column I will go through the probability calculation that a specific ribozyme might assemble by chance. Assume that the ribozyme is 300 nucleotides long, and that at each position there could be any of four nucleotides present. The chances of that ribozyme assembling are then 4^300 a number so large that it could not possibly happen by chance even once in 13 billion years, the age of the universe. Dave Deamer. (15) Calculating The Odds That Life Could Begin By Chance.

​Not enough time for abiogenesis

  • The real killer for the theory of abiogenesis is that even a relatively simple calculation shows that there was not enough time in the universe for even just one aspect of it to happen. The other difficulties of DNA naturally coming together just serve to make it even more impossible. And the fact that no one has even come close to demonstrating how this could happen, despite the research of many scientists for many years, just seals the deal. It is time for a new theory on how life began.
  • At least 387 proteins made up of 20 different amino acids are required for the simplest self-replicating organism (Glass, 19)
  • We will assume that of the 150 or more amino acids in a typical protein, on average it is critical that only 10 of the positions have the exact right amino acid. (Usually, the number is much greater than this).
  • Choosing from a list of 20 possible amino acids in each of 387 * 10 positions => 203,870 = 105,035 possible combinations.
  • Calculating the number of “attempts” to find the correct combination, based on the current scientific estimates for the age and size of the universe: 10 to the 90th power atoms in the universe, 10 to the 12th atomic interactions per second, 10 x 18th seconds since the origin of the universe => 10 to the 110th power possible attempts
  • Combining the two yields a 1 in 10 to the 4,925th power chance that over the entire history and space of the universe the simplest DNA needed for life would randomly form. (Sarfati, 2014b, 36%). That’s a 1 with almost 5000 zeroes after it, so no chance of it happening. Borel's Law states that in any event with a probability lower than 1 in 10 the 50th power is so improbable as to be impossible. Bruce Potter (28)

The probability of forming 2,000 enzymes which are needed by a cell is 10 to the 40,000 power. Remember, the number of particles in the universe is estimated to be 10 to the 90th power. ​While these numbers are staggeringly high, there are 10 to the 79th billion possible combinations of proteins in a yeast cel​l.

In mutations there is a prohibitively large number of ways to get things wrong rather than correct and then somehow add information

Normal chemical reactions in the theorized primordial soup content would sidetrack the forming of proteins. In a high percentage of the combination “chances”, the correct proportion of chemical compounds would not be in close enough proximity to react.​ Once these organisms are created, a high percentage of them would likely die before replicating due to not having a constant supply of the necessary nutrients nearby.​ The chemical compounds needed are not generally found together in a majority of the universe. Bruce Potter (28)

10.    Normal chemical reactions would prevent formation of proteins in water

Water degrades the formation of proteins from amino acids. A protein will last about 13 days if it does not interact with another compound. The "soup" would have been too diluted to allow for protein polymerization.

11.    No explanation of how cell organelles were created
The complexity of a cell is evident in that the average cell contains the equivalent information of 1,000 Encyclopedia Britannica's. That is an astronomical high amount of information. Each of these organelles had to be created at the same time in order for the cell to function. Even if just a ribosome was created how would it survive millions of years of waiting for the rest of the cell to form. This is a presumption that the ribosome knows it is going to be a part of a cell someday. ​Imagine if somehow nature could make an engine carburetor, then wait for millions of years for the rest of the engine to be made (evolved)? Nature does not know the steps to make the cell let alone the end goal.

List of cell Organelles

The Cell is a simple homogeneous globule of plasm. Haeckel, Huxley

How did these numerous cell organelles get through the cell membrane and how and why were they created considering undirected processes? All these organelles are required for a living cell, but a minimal size cell would be something like E. Coli. And referring to E. Coli, how has it not basically changed over several billion years? Especially when everything is "evolving". Creation of each new organelle would require new coding (information) and proteins. Where did this new code come from?

While the list of cell organelles and their function is significant, please just read over them to get a feel for the enormous complexity of these irreducible complex molecules. If part of the molecule is missing, the organelle will not function.

For a Power Point of all these organelles click here.

  1. Plasma Membrane. Encapsulates one cell and is made of proteins and carbohydrates. Cell membranes allow certain molecules into/out of the cell and keep other molecules out to protect the cell. There are 4,000 different lipids potentially within the cell membrane.
  2. Cytoplasm. Watery fluid inside the cell in which molecules move within the cell maintains cell shape.
  3. Ribosome. a minute organelle consisting of RNA and associated proteins found in large numbers in the cytoplasm of living cells. They bind messenger RNA and transfer RNA to synthesize polypeptides and proteins. Reference
  4. Mitochondria. an organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur. It has a double membrane; the inner layer being folded inward to form layers. Reference
  5. Endoplasmic reticulum. a network of membranous tubules within the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell, continuous with the nuclear membrane. Much of it has ribosomes attached and is involved in protein and lipid synthesis. Reference
  6. Golgi Apparatus. a complex of vesicles and folded membranes within the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells, involved in secretion and intracellular transport.
  7. Transport Tubules. This one is amazing, no slight modifications could create this organelle. Transports specific molecules from one specific area of a cell to another specific area of the cell. a tubule is constructed within a cell. After the transporting materials the tubule is deconstructed and reassembled in another area of the cell. Reference
  8. Chaperones. "spell corrector" In molecular biology, molecular chaperones are proteins that assist the conformational folding or unfolding of large proteins or macromolecular protein complexes. There are a number of classes of molecular chaperones, all of which function to assist large proteins in proper protein folding during or after synthesis. What is really amazing is that the chaperones must know the good from bad code. How do they know this? Reference.
  9. DNA. Deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material that is present in all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information. Reference
  10. RNA. ribonucleic acid, a nucleic acid present in all living cells. One of its principal roles is to act as a messenger carrying instructions from DNA for controlling the synthesis of proteins. Reference
  11. Microbodies. A microbody can thus be defined as a cytoplasmic organelle that is more or less globular in shape. They have degradative enzymes that are encapsulated within a single membrane. They are considered as containers for metabolic activity. There are multiple types of microbodies. References
  12. Nucleus. the central and most important part of an object, movement, or group, forming the basis for its activity and growth. Reference
  13. Cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton is a network of filaments and tubules that extends throughout a cell, through the cytoplasm, which is all of the material within a cell along with the organelles, except for the nucleus. It is found in all cells, though the proteins that it is made of vary between organisms. Reference.
  14. Centrosome. an organelle near the nucleus of a cell which contains the centrioles (in animal cells) and from which the spindle fibers develop in cell division. Reference
  15. Centrioles. a minute cylindrical organelle near the nucleus in animal cells, occurring in pairs and involved in the development of spindle fibers in cell division. Reference
  16. Vacuoles. a space or vesicle within the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosed by a membrane and typically containing fluid. Reference

Cytologists now realize that a living cell contains hundreds of thousands of different complex parts such as various motor proteins that are assembled to produce the most complex “machine” in the Universe—a machine far more complex than the most complex Cray supercomputer.

Christian (6), Why Abiogenesis Is Impossible). All these are required for a functioning cell. If there is no plasma membrane, there is nothing to hold all the organelles together. If no mitochondria no energy production in the cell. If no cytoplasm, then no medium for organelles to move within the cell.

“What is the minimum number of parts necessary for an autotrophic free-living organism to live, and could these parts assemble by naturalistic means?”(Jerry Bergman, 4).  Research shows that at the lowest level this number is in the multimillions, producing an irreducible level of complexity that cannot be bridged by any known natural means.


"The non-covalent interactive connectivity within a functioning cell. Nobody knows how a viable cell emerges from the massive combinatorial complexity of its molecular components. And of course, nobody has ever synthetically mimicked it. An interactome is the whole set of molecular interactions in a particular cell. If one merely considers all protein-protein interactome combinations in just a single yeast cell, the result is an estimated 10 to the 79th billion combinations. (10 to the 90 power is the estimated number of elemental particles in the universe)" Peter Tompa and George D. Rose, (34)

12.    No explanation of where cell energy, i.e., carbohydrates, came from

According to the idea of abiogenesis in what order were chemicals arranged, how were carbohydrates formed and how were they assembled?​

13.    No real explanation of how cell membranes were formed
Perhaps, then, someone would think that the cell membrane appeared first. David Deamer at the University of California, Santa Cruz, has spearheaded this direction. In the 1970s, his group discovered that fats found in cell membranes could be made when two simple chemicals, cyanamide and glycerol, were mixed with water and heated to 65°C. …. However, he now accepts that this is not enough, because lipids cannot carry genes or form enzymes.

14.    Polymerization problem in getting amino acids strung together to form a protein

With 20 different amino acids and considering a small protein of 150 amino acids, how did polymerization (combing amino acids to make a polymer) occur? During polymerization, how does the molecule the correct order? Where did the information (code) come from?

Nobody has shown a prebiotic route to the polymerization of the amino acids, nucleotides or carbohydrates with the required regioselectivity, stereoselectivity and stereospecificity. The preceding words were used by Dr Tour when describing the complexity of polymerization, as can be seen by their definition here:

15. Theory of RNA first before DNA but no explanation of where RNA materials came from

RNA cannot be the starting point of the development of cells because the RNA needs the protection of the cell membrane to protect it. It also requires DNA, proteins and enzymes for its synthesis.​

16. Complex biomolecules are quickly destroyed outside the cell

Time, heat and watery environments are the enemies of the cell. Remember, a created protein has 13 days in which to interact in the cell or it is disassembled. Heat degrades protein (think about cooking that steak to make it tender) and water degrades newly formed proteins.

17. Primitive lipids did not form cell membranes into spheres because it also contains proteins, and the making of phospholipids would be required

A cell membrane requires proteins and lipids in about a 50/50 combination. The inside and outside of a cell membrane are different due to different cell interactions with its internal and external environment.​

18. Early earth conditions do not allow for organic molecules to polymerize (link together).

Early earth conditions would not be inductive to abiogenesis with a lack of a simple method for simple molecules to polymerize. In the Miller-Urey experiment, the simple amino acids would not form into more complex proteins or anything similar to primitive life, plus their miscalculation of what earth's early atmosphere was supposed to be like.​

19. No explanation on how amino acids were formed
No idea of the chemical interactions between hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and R groups

Creating a protein with the amino acids in the right order, they must also fold in the correct 3-D pattern. Resulting cellular interactions are based on correct order and folding pattern. A small protein consists of about 150 amino acids whereas a complex protein may have up to 35,000 amino acids (titin).​

20. No evidence for a "primordial soup".

It is thought there was a primordial soup consisting of organic and inorganic compounds in water which synthesized into a living organism. Current research shows this concept invalid. The field of molecular biology proves Darwinism false.​

Molecules and chemicals do not care about life. In the early stages of abiogenesis there is not an end goal. In the primordial soup molecules would break down and would be unwilling to regulate their normal inclinations to cross react with other intrusive chemicals.

“Forever lacking are the key elements required for life: coordinated activity, coherent function, regulated control, meaningful information, purposeful intent. These things require intelligence.” Eric H. Anderson, 1)

​21. Chance is not a cause.

Chance is the probability of something happening. Are there any uncaused events? No! 

​But just as bricks alone don’t make a house, so it takes more than a random collection of amino acids to make life. Like house bricks, the building blocks of life have to be assembled in a very specific and exceedingly elaborate way before they have the desired function (Davies, 13).

What are Probabilities?

Probabilities are mathematical statements of how likely something will occur. For example, if a person flips a coin the probability of getting a heads is 50%. If flipping two coins at once the probability of both being heads is 25%, or half of that with one coin flipped. The numbers presented below show very high probabilities of something NOT happening.  A bike lock with four dials has 10,000 possible combinations to unlock. The probability of getting the correct combination on the first trial is 10 to the 4th power, or 1 with four zeros. The probability of a bike lock with 10 dials is 10 to the 10th power (or 10 zeros), or 10,000,000,000 possible combinations. That is a very big number, but the following information will show improbabilities significantly larger.

​This article presents several probabilities, from different authors, of something occurring. It should be noted that the variance in some numbers is a result of extremely high probabilities and assumptions that are made.

​The probability of forming proteins and making a living cell is calculated to be 10 to the 41,000th power. That is a mind-boggling number. 

​The probability of a simple protein with 150 amino acids is 10 x 164th power. For a video click here . The number of events in the history of the universe (13.7 billion years) has been calculated to be 10 to the 120th power. (Seth Lloyd 23). Not even a small protein with 150 amino acids could be formed on its own during this time period.​

"There was no primeval soup, neither on this planet nor any other, and if the beginnings of life were not random, they must therefore have been the product of purposeful intelligence." Dr Fred Hoyle (21)

As Coppedge (9) notes, even 1) postulating a primordial sea with every single component necessary for life, 2) speeding up the bonding rate so as to form different chemical combinations a trillion times more rapidly than hypothesized to have occurred, 3) allowing for a 4.6 billion- year-old earth and 4) using all atoms on the earth still leaves the probability of a single protein molecule being arranged by chance is 10 to the 261th power. Using the lowest estimate made before the discoveries of the past two decades raised the number several fold. Coppedge estimates the probability of 10 x 119,879th power is necessary to obtain the minimum set of the required estimate of 239 protein molecules for the smallest theoretical life form.

At this rate he estimates it would require 10 x 19,831th power years on the average to obtain a set of these proteins by naturalistic evolution (1973, pp. 110, 114). The number he obtained is10 to the 119,831 greater than the current estimate for the age of the earth (4.6 billion years). In other words, this event is outside the range of probability. Natural selection cannot occur until an organism exists and is able to reproduce which requires that the first complex life form first exist as a functioning unit. The Improbability of Abiogenesis (34)

However, biophysicist Harold Morowitz (27) came up with a much lower probability of 1 in 1,000,000,000,000. This was the chance of a minimalist bacterium being assembled from a broth of all the basic building blocks (e.g. theoretically obtained by heating a brew of living bacteria to kill them and break them down to their basic constituents).

Why would anyone base their scientific theory (or their worldview) on those odds?

22. No explanation of where the four basic cell components came from
How were the four components for making life come from:
•    Lipids
•    Carbohydrates
•    Nucleic acids
•    Amino acids​

"The origin of life is about as good as it gets in terms of scientific 'proof' for the existence of God."

23. Irreducible complexity
Irreducible complexity is a term coined by Dr. Micheal Behe (2). An organism, or cell, is irreducibly complex that if just one part is missing, the organism/cell will not function. An example is the common mouse trap with five parts: base, spring, catch, hammer and holding bar curl.  If one part is missing the mouse trap is nonfunctioning. And if the five parts of a mouse trap are not assembled correctly the trap does not function. A more complex example is the bacteria flagellum. The flagellum is a whip like propeller that can spin at 100,00 RPM and stop within a quarter of a turn. Its purpose is to propel the bacteria through its environment. Its complexity is seen in its 30 different proteins, and if one is missing the flagellum will not rotate. The bacteria flagellum is high tech and low life.

​​"Our cells contain incredible complexity, like miniature factories using machine technology but dwarfing the complexity and efficiency of anything produced by humans. Cells use miniature circuits, motors, feedback loops, encoded language, and even error-checking machinery to decode and repair our DNA. Darwinian evolution struggles to build this type of integrated complexity. As biochemist Franklin Harold admits: 'there are presently no detailed Darwinian accounts of the evolution of any biochemical or cellular system, only a variety of wishful speculations.’ Dina Spector (30)

Another irreducibly complex is system blood clotting.
There are 12 factors in blood clotting (plus calcium is necessary as a cofactor, Factor IV):
Clotting factors are components found in plasma that are linked to the blood clotting process. These factors are named and numbered based on their discovery. The clotting factors are:
1.  Factor I (fibrinogen),
2.  Factor II (prothrombin)
3.  Factor III (tissue thromboplastin or tissue factor)
4.  Factor IV (ionized calcium)
5.  Factor V (labile factor or proaccelerin)

6. Factor VI Unassigned
7.  Factor VII (stable factor or proconvertin)
8.  Factor VIII (antihemophilic factor).
Additionally, the coagulation factors also include:
9.  Factor IX (plasma thromboplastin component or the Christmas factor)
10. Factor X (Stuart-Prower factor)
11. Factor XI (plasma thromboplastin antecedent)
12. Factor XII (Hageman factor)
13. Factor XIII (fibrin-stabilizing factor).

From: Hematology - Coagulation Cascade - YouTube (20)

​​Complexity versus Specified Complexity

The following letter sequence is an example of complexity. It is complex due to the letters and their order:


​But what do they mean? Is there any information in them?

​The following letter sequence is an example of specified complexity:


​Now this shows a message, information. DNA has specified complexity because it contains specific information. It is the specific order of the bases, and the folding, that determines function. Where did this specified complexity of information come from, what is the source?

​"No currently existing formal language can tolerate random changes in the symbol sequences which express its sentences. Meaning is almost invariably destroyed. Murry Edin. (17)

24. Nature does not keep a lab notebook.
The theory of abiogenesis assumes changes are from simple to complex, from small to large. It also assumes that its changes, mutations, always result in improvements to the cell/organism. In reality almost all mutations result in the degrading of the cell/organism. Once a mutation goes wrong, there is no information (a loss of information) from which it came from and how to correct the problem.

​This is a major problem for Darwinism because life at the cellular level generally does not reveal a gradual increase in complexity as it ascends the evolutionary ladder from protozoa to humans. The reason that all cells are basically alike is because the basic biochemical requirements and constraints for all life are the same.

25. Nano machines in the cell

There are many biological nano machines within the cell with numerous functions. Each is complexly designed, organized, for very specific functions in the cell. If one part of the nano machine is missing the "machine" will not function. What is the chance of one of these machines being self-organized, let alone all of them? Each one is important. The nano machines are macromolecular in that they are composed of several different molecules. Nano machines are irreducibly complex.

While the list of cell nano machines and their function is significant, please just read over them to get a feel for the enormous complexity of these irreducible complex molecules. If part of the molecule is missing, the nano machine will not function.

For videos of molecular nano machines in the cell, click here and here

  1. Amionacyl tRNA Synthetases(aaRS). Charges tRNAs with proper amino acid, then they can accurately participate in he process of translation of substrates, enzymes, proteins, cofactors and calcium ions accelerate the coagulation.
  2. Antibodies and the Adaptive Immune System. The adaptive immune system, also called acquired immunity, uses specific antigens to strategically mount an immune response. Unlike the innate immune system, which attacks only based on the identification of general threats, the adaptive immunity is activated by exposure to pathogens, and uses an immunological memory to learn about the threat and enhance the immune response accordingly.
  3. Apoptosome/Caspase.  Initially synthesized as inactive pro-caspases, caspases become rapidly cleaved and activated in response to granzyme B, death receptors, and apoptosome stimuli. Caspases will then cleave a range of substrates, including downstream caspases, nuclear proteins, plasma membrane proteins.
  4. ATP Synthetase . The mitochondrial ATP synthase is a multimeric enzyme complex with an overall molecular weight of about 600,000 Da. The ATP synthase is a molecular motor composed of two separable parts: F1 and Fo. The F1 portion contains the catalytic sites for ATP synthesis and protrudes into the mitochondrial matrix.
  5. Bacteria flagellum. A protein machine, with 25 proteins (all must be present to fully function), that propels the bacterium around in its environment, with a flagellum that rotates at 100,000 rpm and stops within ¼ turn and reverse direction. About 40 genes required for the flagellar construction. Reference .
  6. Bacteriorhodopsin. Compact molecular machines, use sunlight energy to pump protons across a membrane.
  7. ClpX . ClpX recognizes proteins, unfolds them using ATP hydrolysis, and then feeds them into the proteolytic core created by ClpP, which degrades them.
  8. Cohesin. A protein complex that mediates sister chromatid cohesion, homologous recombination, and DNA looping.
  9. Condensin. Large protein complexes that play a central role in chromosome assembly and segregation during mitosis and meiosis.
  10. Cytochrome C Oxidase. Part of the electron transport chain in the mitochondrion.  
  11. Cytplasmic dynein. Cytoplasmic dynein helps to position the Golgi complex and other organelles in the cell. It also helps transport cargo needed for cell function such as vesicles made by the endoplasmic reticulum, endosomes, and lysosomes.
  12. DNA polymerase. DNA polymerases are the enzymes that build DNA in cells. During DNA replication (copying), most DNA polymerases can “check their work” with each base that they add. This process is called proofreading. If the polymerase detects that a wrong (incorrectly paired) nucleotide has been added, it will remove and replace the nucleotide right away, before continuing with DNA synthesis.
  13. Enzymes. There are numerous enzyme machines in the cell for a variety of functions. Enzyme names end in "ase".
  14. Eukaryotic cilium.  Allows sperm to “swim” and to remove foreign particles in the airway.
  15. F0F1 ATP Synthase. Protein based molecular machine composed of two distinct rotary motors which are joined by a stator (stationary portion of the motor) used to make ATP.
  16. Helicase/Topoisomerase Machine. Helicase unwinds the double-stranded DNA whereas topoisomerase relieves the tension created by helicase.
  17. Hemoglobin. a protein in red blood cells that carries iron. This iron holds oxygen, making hemoglobin an essential component of blood. When blood doesn’t contain enough hemoglobin, cells don’t receive enough oxygen.
  18. Hsp60. regulates a broad spectrum of cellular events including protein trafficking, peptide hormone signaling, cell survival, cell proliferation, inflammation, and immunization.
  19. Hsp70. A stress-induced protein. High levels can be produced by cells in response to hyperthermia, oxidative stress, and changes in pH.
  20. Immunological Synapse. The molecular interactions underlying regulation of the immune response take place in a nanoscale gap between T cells and antigen-presenting cells, termed the immunological synapse.
  21. Kex2. A prohormone-processing protease, specifically a yeast serine peptidase, found in the budding yeast (S. cerevisiae). It catalyzes the cleavage of -Lys-Arg- and -Arg-Arg- bonds to process yeast alpha-factor pheromone and killer toxin precursors.
  22. Kinesin Motor. Moves along the microtubules (part of the cytoskeleton) carrying vesicles in a walking motion.
  23. Kinetochore . a protein structure. It forms at the centromere of every chromosome. Its main function is to bind microtubules of the spindle so that during metaphase the chromosomes would be able to properly align at the metaphase plate prior to anaphase, which is the pulling of chromosomes toward opposite poles of the cell.
  24. Mitotic Spindle Machine . The mitotic spindle is a highly dynamic molecular machine composed of tubulin, motors, and other molecules. It assembles around the chromosomes and distributes the duplicated genome to the daughter cells during mitosis.
  25. MRX Complex . recognizes, signals and initiates repair of double strand breaks.
  26. Myosin with Actin. Convert chemical energy into mechanical energy during muscle contraction.
  27. Protein Kinase C . A family of protein kinase enzymes that are involved in controlling the function of other proteins through the phosphorylation of hydroxyl groups of serine and threonine amino acid residues on these proteins.
  28. Proteosome 26S . Cells are constantly building proteins to perform all kinds of different tasks inside a cell. But that also means that it can get quite crowded inside the cell, so it needs to get rid of proteins that are no longer needed, this dismantles protein.
  29. Ribosome . The ribosome is a complex molecular machine responsible for protein synthesis. It reads the genetic code stored in mRNA and translates it into specific sequences of amino acids, which form proteins. Composed of both RNA and proteins, the ribosome ensures the accurate assembly of proteins by precisely positioning and linking amino acids together in a process called translation.
  30. RNA degradosom . The degradosome is a multiprotein complex present in most bacteria that is involved in the processing of ribosomal RNA and the degradation of messenger RNA and is regulated by Non-coding RNA.
  31. RNA Polymerase . An enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reactions that synthesize RNA from a DNA template.
  32. SecYEG PreProtein Translation Channel. the preprotein translocation channel across the endoplasmic reticular membrane.
  33. Smc5/Smc6 . Nse5 and Nse6 form a sub-complex which localizes to the head of the SMC5/6 complex in the budding yeast.
  34. Spliceosome . Composed of 5 RNAs and many (up to 300 distinct proteins). Removes introns from RNA transcripts before translation.
  35. T4DNA Packaging Motor. A complex, metabolically active, concatemeric DNA is translocated into an empty prohead in an ATP-driven process and condensed as a highly ordered structure of near crystalline density.
  36. Type III Secretory System . A protein appendage found in several Gram-negative bacteria.​

​How could all these cell organelles and nano-machines just so happen? That takes a lot of faith, but I don't have enough faith to believe in abiogenesis.​​

Secrets of the Cell with Michael Behe (Season 1 Compilation) - YouTube

26. Mis-calculating earths early atmosphere​

Can we solve the case by "staying in the room?"

Remember the webpage in which cold case detective Jim Warner Wallace ties to solve the case by staying inside the room of the homicide. If he can't solve the case inside the room, then he must go outside of the room for answers. Can we solve the case of origin of life by "staying inside the room of abiogenesis"? No.

​Pulitzer Prize winning writer Lee Strobel said, "science led him to atheism and it was science that led him to God". He spent several years deeply researching the claims of the Bible in order to disprove God and to support his atheism. In the end the facts persuaded him that the Bible was true, and that God existed. Lee could not solve the case of his atheism by staying inside his atheism. He had to go outside the room to find the answer. He interviewed numerous PhD professionals in his search for truth. Their arguments, apologetics, for the Bible and God were too strong for his atheism. He was intellectually honest, and he became a believer in the Bible and God.

​​When Alex Huxley was asked "Why do people believe in evolution", he replied, "The reason we accepted Darwinism even without proof, is because we didn't want God to interfere with our sexual mores." Quoted from D. James Kennedy, Skeptics Answered.


  1. Eric, H. Anderson. Science. Origin Stories — RNA, DNA, and a Dose of Imagination. In Intelligent Design.
  2. Behe, Michael. Irreducible Complexity.
  3. Bodanszky, Miklos.
  4. Bergman, Jerry. Creation Research Society Quarterly, Vol. 36, No. 4, March 2000.
  5. Christain is abiogenesis impossible.
  6. Cookson, Clive. Financial Times Science Editor. The Evolution 2.0 Prize,
  7. Coolidge-Stolz, Elizabeth, Jan Jenner, Marylin Lisowski, Donald Cronkite, and Linda Cronin Jones (2005), Life Science
  8. Coppedge, James, Evolution, 1973.
  9. Crick, Francis. Francis Crick - Wikiquote.
  10. Cronin, Lee. Making matter come alive, YouTube, at 14 min mark.
  11. Darwin, Charles, On the Origin of Species.
  12. Davies, P., The secret of life won’t be cooked up in a chemistry lab: Life’s origins may only be explained through a study of its unique management of information, The Guardian, January 2013.
  13. Dawkins, Richard. The Blind Watchmaker, 1986.
  14. Deamer, D.W. (1985). "Boundary structures are formed by organic compounds of the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite". Nature. 317 (6040): 792–794.
  15. Deamer, Dave Calculating The Odds That Life Could Begin By Chance, April 2009.
  16. Edin, Murry. M.I.T., Wistar Institute Conference: Mathematical Challenges to neo-Darwinism.
  17. Gates, Bill. Human DNA is like a computer program, but far, far more advanced than any software we've ever created."
    -Bill Gates, "The Road Ahead".
  18. Glass, 2006.
  19. Haeckel, Ernst. 1905.
  20. Hematology - Coagulation Cascade.
  21. Hoyle, Fred. Big Enough to Bury Darwin, 2001.
  22. Huxley, Alex. Quoted from D. James Kennedy, Skeptics Answered.
  23. Loyd, Seth. Conceptional capacity of the universe, Physics Review Letters 88:237901, 2002.
  24. Lurquin, P.F. Proteins and Metabolism First, 2003.
  25. Meyer, Stephen, 2009
  26. Miller, Jeff. The Law of Biogenesis, Part II.
  27. Morowitz, H., Energy Flow in Biology, Academic Press, NY, 1968 .
  28. Potter, Bruce.
  29. Rensberger, Boyce. How the World Works, 1986, pp. 17-18.
  30. Spector, Dina. The 6 Reasons Creationists Think Evolution Isn't A Sure Thing, Sep 18, 2012.
  31. Spetner, Lee. Is God left handed ( As told to Ken Funk Ph.D.
  32. The Improbability of Abiogenesis (
  33. Tompa, Peter and George D. Rose. Protein Science, 2011, 20, 207402079.
  34. Tour, James. YouTube Video.
  35. Ward, George. The origin of life, Scientific American 191(2):44–53, August 1954. Quote on p.48.
  36. Watson, James and Crick, Francis. The Double Helix - Wikipedia
  37. Yockey, Herbert. Information Theory, Evolution, and the Origin of Life 2005.

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